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When the colonial nations formed in Berlin became independent after WW2, conflict was almost inevitable. The long war in Congo and Great Lakes region that has persisted since Rwanda genocide of 1994, at a cost of an estimated 3.5 million lives, is perhaps the most notorious example. The delegates to the Berlin conference believed that they were claiming empty space, where the inhabitants had no claim to the land because they did not use it.  Europeans had actively forgotten their previous highly detailed knowledge of Africa derived from the slave trade. 17th and 18th century maps of Africa showed major cities, rivers and other political and physical features. By the late 19th century, Africs was simply known as the ‘dark continent’, a place unknown to Europeans.”