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“Let me round this up with a nice little coda. ‘Africa is people’ has another dimension. Africa believes in people, in cooperation with people. if the philosophical dictum of Descartes ‘I think therefore I am’ represents a European individualistic ideal, the Bantu declaration ‘Umuntu ngumuntu ngabantu‘ represents an African communal aspiration: ‘A human is a human because of other humans.’

Our humanity is contingent on the humanity of our fellows. No person or group can be human alone. We rise above the animal together, or not at all. If we learned that lesson even this late in the day, we would have taken a truly millennial step forward.” Chinua Achebe